Answer :


The three main types of rocks are igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks. Each type has unique characteristics and formation processes.

Igneous Rocks: These rocks form when magma (molten rock within the Earth's crust) cools and solidifies. The cooling process can occur either below the Earth's surface (intrusive or plutonic rocks) or above the surface (extrusive or volcanic rocks), leading to different textures. Intrusive rocks, such as granite, cool slowly and have large mineral crystals, while extrusive rocks, like basalt, cool rapidly and have small crystals or glassy textures.

Sedimentary Rocks: These rocks form from the accumulation and cementation of sediment, such as mineral and organic particles, in layers over time. There are three primary categories of sedimentary rocks: clastic (formed from fragments or particles), chemical (formed by the precipitation of minerals from water), and organic (formed from the remains of plants and animals). Examples include sandstone, limestone, and coal.

Metamorphic Rocks: These rocks form when existing rocks (either igneous, sedimentary, or other metamorphic rocks) are subjected to high temperatures, pressures, or chemically active fluids, causing the minerals within the rock to recrystallize and change its structure and composition. There are two primary categories of metamorphic rocks: foliated (displaying layered or banded structures due to pressure) and non-foliated (without layered or banded structures). Examples include gneiss, schist, marble, and slate.

Final answer: The three main types of rocks are igneous rocks (formed from cooling magma), sedimentary rocks (formed from accumulated sediment), and metamorphic rocks (formed from the transformation of existing rocks due to heat, pressure, or chemically active fluids).

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