The excerpt below is from an 1873 document.
"...Resolved, That the railways of the world, except in those countries where they have been
held under the strict regulation
and supervision of the government, have proved themselves
arbitrary, extortionate
and as opposed to free institutions and free commerce between states as
were the feudal barons of the
middle ages..."
Resolutions of a meeting of the Illinois State Farmers' Association April 1873
What was done to counteract these perceived railroad business practices?
O States refused to sell land to railroad developers.
States limited farmer access to railroad services.
States passed Granger Laws.
O Businessmen supported federal legislation that deregulated railroad business practices.

Answer :

Final answer:

In the late 1800s, farmers formed The Grange to address exploitative railroad practices, leading to state-level Granger Laws and eventual federal intervention through the Interstate Commerce Act.


The perceived arbitrary and exploitative practices of railroads towards farmers in the late 1800s led to the formation of The Grange, a farmers' organization.

State governments responded to these issues by passing laws known as the Granger Laws that aimed to regulate railroad rates and establish railroad commissions.

Ultimately, the federal government intervened by passing the Interstate Commerce Act in 1887, creating the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) to regulate railroad business practices at the national level.

Learn more about Granger Laws and Federal Regulation of Railroads here: